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Animal life of the Tisza valley

Atalanta butterfly - Vanessa atalantaAnimal life of the Tisza, or in broader sense of the Tisza valley is extremely rich. The series of habitats providing different environmental conditions gives an extremely complex network of communities, thus it excels not only in richness in species, but also in complexity. In consequence of its topographic localization, the river valley plays a uniquely important role in the European ecological network. From zoogeographical point of view European, Euro-Siberian, Pontic-Caspian and Mediterranean elements are represented in largest portion. Native Carpathian, so-called endemic species are of overriding importance. In addition to this, plant and animal life of the Tisza (primarily that of the upper Tisza) represents a unique value in many respects through large scale melioration of European rivers.


Union of White and Black TiszaTisza at TokajGradient-like hydrological-hydrobiological changes of the river give a characteristic longitudinal division, but within sections of similar character this image is further improved by modifications, as effects of changes of partly natural causes (e. g. differences in water depth and speed, different characteristics of bends, effects of feeder tributaries), partly human influence (e. g. bank pavements, bank protecting works - spurs, wire springs - barrages). Effects of changes appearing due to pollutions on given sections can also be considerable, which in lighter case have changed the frequency of characteristic species, while in stronger case have totally transformed or even exterminated the fauna. We have to speak about the different fauna of different habitats, because considering water cover there are significant differences between areas of current line, bank water and those with temporary water cover. In the river there are floating or drifting beings, and those doing active Sand Martin (Riparia riparia) colony on a steep bank slopemotion, and those attached to the bed or other substrate. Aquatic habitats along the river, mortlakes, flood-plain forests, or even steep bank slopes along the river have an extremely rich fauna, which in addition differs significantly from the fauna, characteristic to the given section. There is no possibility here for detailed characterization of all these, we undertake to show exclusively the fauna linking directly to water in general.



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Last update: Webmester, 26. December 2000.